Australian drug use laws are fairly standard compared to other developed countries: Australia takes a relatively strict approach, punishing those who use and possess illegal drugs. The Australian government has considered and implemented some preventative measures to reduce drug rates. However, punitive measures have continued to be the country’s primary response to illicit substance use. This reliance has failed to reduce Australia’s high overdose rate or to address the impact drug criminalisation has had on the Australian prison system. A consideration of successful drug reform models from around the world is required in order to reduce the effects and rates of substance abuse in Australia.