Justice Action

time for Justice Action

 
Error
  • JUser::_load: Unable to load user with id: 1550

Computers in Cells

For the good of our community, we need a computer in every prison cell. Computers are a tool to target recidivism through education and self improvement. With the majority of prisoners spending up to 18 hours in their cells, Justice Action believes that the only way to make prisoners productive members of society when they return outside is to give them the tools to do this on the inside. Download latest draft 30/8/12 Computers in Cells Proposal

By simply providing incarcerated individuals with a computer of their own, the number of re-offenders could be drastically reduced. While there are specific security issues which must be considered, technological advances are rapidly ensuring that such concerns are easy to address. Although similar successful models exist in the ACT, Victoria and Norway, computers are currently not provided in individual cells in NSW or most prisons around the world.


Offering a myriad of personal stories and quotes from recent ex-prisoners, the proposal clearly depicts the severely restricted computer access currently being provided. For instance, one prisoner was only able to gain access to a computer five times in a year, consequently forcing them to withdraw from the university and TAFE courses they were undertaking at the time. The provision of computers will come at a very small cost to the Department of Corrective Services NSW, with many organisations having already expressed interest in contributing to the project. Justice Action proposes that computers be equipped with email capabilities and educational resources, whilst simultaneously being centrally managed and resilient to unauthorised modifications.

Introducing such a system would not only directly minimise prison disruption, but also indirectly deter future criminal behaviour by providing prisoners with increased resources - and thus, greater awareness - concerning the workings of the law. With the most significant component of this proposal emphasising prisoner education (a feature which would subsequently increase the likelihood of them obtaining university or TAFE qualifications upon their release), the issue of improved recidivism prospects is pivotal to Justice Action’s proposal.

Download latest draft 30/8/12 Computers in Cells Proposal

-----------------------------------------------

 

Computers in Cells


Maintaining community ties and reducing recidivism


men-in-boxes


 ja-logo-lo-res


Contents

1 Introduction

2 Current Situation

2.1 Experiences of recent ex-prisoners

3 Existing Examples of Expanded Computer Use

3.1 Metropolitan Remand Centre in Victoria
3.2 The Alexander Maconochie Centre in ACT
3.3 Skien High Security Prison

4 Our Proposal

4.1 Supply
4.2 Software
4.3 A system of personal responsibility

5 Concerns

5.1 Security
5.2 Cost
5.3 The Department’s Public Image

6 Benefits

6.1 Prison Control
6.2 Legal Resources
6.3 Recidivism and Computer Literacy
6.4 Recidivism and Social Connection
6.5 Recidivism and Education
6.6 Benefits of Cost and Morality for the state

7 Conclusion

8 References

9 Cases

10 Appendix

-----------------------------------------------

1 INTRODUCTION

Computers have had a profound impact on society in recent decades – not only in the workplace, but also in homes, schools and the public arena. Aside from acting as an effective means of instantaneous communication, they serve to promote scholarly and vocational education. This proposal discusses the potential of computers in NSW Correctional Centres and in similar institutions around the world for addressing issues such as recidivism, education and employment, as well as providing other benefits such as access to legal resources and a means of communication to sources of support.

Central to this proposal is providing efficacy to the correctional values of prisoner welfare and reducing the number of re-offenders. It is clear that the focus of the prison system has shifted from punitive punishment to rehabilitation. Justice Action strongly believes that installing computers in every cell will facilitate this goal and prove to have a positive impact on recidivism, reintegration and employment for prisoners upon release.

However, although the benefits of such a program are clear on both a national and international level, any attempt to introduce computers into individual cells must also deal with security issues and the perception that prisoners are receiving better treatment than the average tax-paying citizen. These concerns are legitimate, but security issues are becoming increasingly nullified by advanced software such as Cyber PrisonPC[1], while any image problems can be carefully managed by demonstrating the economic benefits to the tax-payer and showing how improving the education of prisoners helps to lower crime rates and take a world-leading stance on a key human rights area. Indeed, to some extent this model has already had some success and this proposal draw on experiences in ACT, VIC and Norway to show this.

 

2 CURRENT SITUATION

There is currently no provision of computers in individual cells in NSW or most prisons around the world. NSW Correctional Centres provide shared classrooms where inmates may access computers for limited number of hours under supervision provided they submit an ‘Offender Application for Access to Computers’ and agree to the ‘Guidelines for Offenders Using Computers’.[2] Managers must ensure that “desktop computers are used for work, education, training and/or legal use”.[3] Under Section 5.4.1.3, “the offender’s access to the desktop computer is to be withdrawn immediately” if supervision cannot be provided and often this means that access to computers is limited and that prisoners face educational setbacks.[4] Meanwhile, most TAFE and university courses now require regular access to computers. A report by the Employment, Education and Training References Committee notes, “it is becoming increasingly common for enrolment into courses to be conditional on having access to a computer and in some instances, to a modem as well so that two-way communication will be possible”.[5]

As a result of the inaccessibility of computers under the status quo, only 1.3% of NSW prisoners are engaged in higher education.[6] This is a particularly significant problem because 60% of inmates in NSW did not complete year 10 in the first place.[7] The onus for improving this situation lies squarely with government. Between 2003 and 2004, 39% of prisoners participated in courses offered by the Adult Education and Vocational Training Institute, showing a desire for self-improvement when the opportunity was available. Adding to this impetus is the Report of the Inquiry into Education and Training Correctional Facilities conducted by the Senate Employment, Education and Training References Committee, which recommended that “prison education centres with personal computers and modems to enable access to the standard range of educational databases and networks available to community-based school and TAFE students and undergraduates.”[8] Thus, the proposal to place computers into each cell steps into this void and provides a model from which responsible governments can work.

 

2.1 Experiences of Recent Ex-prisoners

It is important to know that this area of reform does not come in a vacuum and is actually affecting the lives of prisoners on a daily basis. Three such cases that are worth discussing are the experiences of Mark Middleton, A. Hughes and Peter Clarke.

 

2.1.1 Mark Middleton

I know that there are computers in jails, however whether you can get the access you need or require is another thing.  I have personally experienced the inadequacies of the education wing. For example, although the wing opens say from 8:30 am to 11:30am for the morning session, we have not been allowed down to the wing till 9:00 to 9:30 am and then we are kicked out of the wing at 11:00 am to prepare for muster.

As the educational wing was not a high priority in the running of the jail, if an officer in another post was away then the educational wing was the first post to get stripped of its officer. Then, as there were not enough officers at education, access would be denied that session (which 90% of the time was all day).

With a jail of 300 or 600 inmates, education only had limited computers for students (with the number of computers usually being less than 10% of the number of prisoners) and the illiterate had priority before tertiary study students. Therefore you could wait weeks or even months before a position for a full time student would become available.

Even once you got access to the computers, you would often get disturbed with questions on how to do this or how to do that, as the one teacher that was employed some days found it difficult to share his time around if there was problems with computers etc.

Although there were dedicated classes teaching prisoners how to use computers, it was difficult to access these classes as the computers were constantly being used by other inmates.

In some centre computers you would not save anything to them as the next day or sometime in the near future it would be wiped clean and you would lose all information and you had to print out everything and hope it was correct.

 

2.1.2 A. Hughes

“I have been in the NSW prison system since 1993 and I was first introduced to the education computers in 1994.

At Lithgow, in 1996, I had access to one as required (twice weekly). Plus Lithgow had a computer room with around 20 PC’s. Each inmate had their own folder on the server with password protection. I believe this system is still running today. Computer access was around 9 hours weekly.

I was relocated to Goulburn around 1997 and the small computer room comprised 4 PC’s. Computer access for 4 hours daily.

I was then relocated to Berrima in 1998-1999. The computer room only had 4 computers which were PI technology with CD-ROMS. Computer access was around 10 hours daily. Shortly after they arrived, the gaol changed to a female gaol, and I returned to Goulburn.

I hope the above information will help you in some way. I’m sorry it’s not all typed up and laid out for you, because of the new policy I only see the computer once a week if I’m lucky, and that’s only for an hour. I’ve been in the computer 5 times this year (it’s July), which forced me to withdraw from uni (USQ) and the IT Certificate III Software applications course I was doing at TAFE.”

 

2.1.3 Peter Clark

Supreme Court Justices Harrison, Holmes and others recommended that I have computer access to prepare my legal documents i.e. My Appeal.

I have been given very limited computer access and the only time I can use the computer is in out of cell time (exercise time).

Judge Solomon of the District Court ordered that the DPP supply me with a laptop. The precedent being that the DPP supplied the terrorists with laptops. That was in September 2010.

Judge Solomon gave the DPP 3 weeks to comply. in October 2010 the DPP stated that the Director did not have funds to supply me with a laptop.

I believe and so do the Judges or Justices that inmates who are doing their own appeals or representing themselves should have computer access in their cells, either laptops or desktop PC.

My appeal document is over 200 pages using a computer. It would be over 500 pages if I had to hand write it. I believe it's also impossible to do an appeal by hand.

Also many inmates young and old can't read or write. If they had a computer in their cell they could put the 22 hours a day to good use with maths or reading programmes.

What these experiences show are the issues that might be overcome through the implementation of a program that allows for computers in each prison cell.

 

3 EXISTING EXAMPLES OF EXPANDED COMPUTER USE

While personal computer use for prisoners is not the international standard, this proposal does not exist in a vacuum. Indeed, a precedent can be found for such a model in programs that already exist in Victoria, the ACT and Norway where expanded computer use has provided significant benefits in terms of reaching educational goals.

 

3.1 Metropolitan Remand Centre in Victoria

In the case of correction facilities in Victoria, personal computers are allowed for the following purposes: legal issues, education and training, and integration needs. Ultimately, these three justifications enhance prisoners’ level of education, which invariably leads to the rehabilitation of prisoners. “Access to a computer in the cells of prisoners is a privilege, not a right, for all prisoners. Prisoners who can demonstrate a need for a computer must make an application to purchase a computer, be able to pay for the purchase of an approved computer and software, and abide by the rules regarding computer use and restrictions on software and games”.[9] Although there are many restrictions pertaining to computer use, hardware and software, personal computers may be utilised to aid in the education process.  In Victoria, prisoners may use personal computers in their cells.

 

3.2 The Alexander Maconochie Centre in ACT

The Alexander Maconochie Centre (AMC) opened in 2008 and is the ACT’s primary correction facility. The facility has been hailed as the first human rights prison in Australia modeled on the concept of rehabilitation rather than punishment.[10] In an interview with the ABC, Dr John Paget explains that the focus of the AMC is on treating a prison population that is significantly marked by mental health issues, addiction and a lack of education.[11] The therapeutic environment of the centre draws inspiration from the design of intensive care units, aged care facilities and schools. Since the 1st March 2009, computers that use the use the Cyber PrisonPC software have been made available to most cells (See 4.2 for a description of this software).

 

3.3 Skien High Security Prison

Internationally, the practice of providing prisoners with computers in the cells has been implemented. Norway has been a leading nation in this program, with prisoners in the Skien high security prison in southern Norway gaining access to computers both in the classroom as well as having individual computers in their cells.[12] Prison authorities in Skien have addressed the issue of security by installing firewalls that maintain security protocols, while allowing limited access to the Internet and resources that promote educational aims.[13] This educative approach to the prison system has wielded considerable results; the rates of recidivism of Norway’s prisoners lie at 20%, as compared to 50% and 60% in the UK and US respectively.[14]

 

4 OUR PROPOSAL

Considering the inadequacy of communal computer facilities and taking into account the success of the above examples, Justice Action proposes the provision of individual computers in cells for prisoners. These computers should be equipped with:

  • Email capability so that inmates may keep in touch with family, friends and teachers so that they may complete their learning and successfully reintegrate into society upon the completion of their incarceration.
  • Access to legal resources whether in the form of CD-ROMs or online resources such as Austlii.
  • Programs vital to the inmate’s vocational or tertiary learning if study is being undertaken. The availability of such programs will also encourage further education among those who have yet to consider such a step.
  • Access to web-based resources so that inmates may search for and apply for employment opportunities as they approach their release date.

 

4.1 Supply

Justice Action has already received a great deal of interest from organisations wishing to contribute to this project. The provision of computers will be at virtually no cost to the Department of Corrective Services NSW as these computers can be sourced from companies who regularly turn over their stock of computers or from other government departments. Furthermore, most computers whose hardware is less than five years old are compatible with the requisite software to maintain the security and efficient operation of this system (see 4.2 Software) and this provides a large scope from which computers can be taken. Such a model of supply also has applicability on the international stage due to the rapid replacement of computers at major companies.

 

4.2 Software

One obvious concern with the implementation of such a program is that of security and abuse of the system. However, established software, such as Cyber PrisonPC, allows for easy surveillance and management of any unauthorised computer use while maintaining the educational benefits of computer access. PrisonPC promises a “centrally managed computing system, enabling custodial staff to manage all desktops from a single, isolated location” and desktops which are “resilient to any method of permanent user modification or unauthorised changes”.[15] The programme has already been implemented at both the Metropolitan Remand Centre in Victoria and the Alexander Maconochie Centre (AMC) correctional facility in the ACT and operates on most computers released in the past five years (subject to compatibility checks). 

With regards the applications of such software, PrisonPC includes:

  • Complete office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, etc)
  • PDF document viewer
  • Educational software
  • Games (solitaire, etc)
  • Extensive online help[16]

 

Furthermore, prisoners may also be given access to an approved list of websites and a secure email so that they may contact a restricted and monitored amount of people (such as their solicitor and family members), similar to their existing managed telephone access. Indeed, the current system used by the NSW Department of Education and Training to control prisoners’ access to Internet sources through the use of an intranet system that puts appropriate limits on the information prisoners can access online. Prisoners will only be able to visit sites approved by prison management, and even in these cases, only specific parts of these sites as required to maintain a secure environment. This process is also supplemented by the PrisonPC software; at the Alexander Maconochie Centre, the software has already prevented security breaches through its integrated monitoring systems. All user sessions are logged and available for audit, and custodial staff can remotely monitor or control prisoner desktops – either for remote support or for surveillance.[17] As seen in the below diagram, incoming emails are put through extensive filtering security processes through the following system:


computer in cells webimage

As a result prisoners are able to gain the clear educational benefits of having computers in individual cells without access to restricted or inappropriate information.

 

4.3 A System of Personal Responsibility

While Justice Action has considered and addressed various concerns arising from the proposed installation of computers in cells, we recognise that inmates may still abuse the system. In such an event, it is necessary that authorities recognise the principle of individual responsibility as opposed to collective responsibility, ensuring that only those inmates who abuse the system should be punished. Imposing punishments on the entire prison due to the transgressions of select prisoners will have the negative effect of setting back the educational aspirations of the entire prison community. In the event that abuses of the computers in cells system does occur, transgressors should be dealt with individually, allowing the other prisoners to enjoy the continued educational benefits proposed by the computer program. 

 

5 CONCERNS

Any proposal on this scale and in such a divisive area will undoubtedly come with numerous concerns and questions. Issues such as security, problems of image and the perceived cost of such a scheme all need to be addressed before such a model can be implemented.

 

5.1 Security

It is essential that some formal principles about computer access for people in detention are immediately established, as this is basic to any serious attempt to nationally implement a computers in cells (CIC) program. The aim is to fully defend the CIC system against any abuses that could place the community, prisons or prison staff at risk.

Any new proposal within the prison system is a disturbance of the status quo. There will be a high level of emotional response from administrators and staff who are accustomed to operating in a tightly controlled and restricted environment and always resent any benefits to prisoners. Those who have little knowledge of IT and low education levels will be suspicious and distrustful of the computers in cells system. As a consequence, some administrators and staff have in the past deliberately sabotaged new systems, therefore it is necessary that we provide stated standards by which it can be judged to ensure that computers in cells are protected.

By examining several cases where prisoners have abused computers, we have developed the ‘Gold Standards’ that all CIC programs should abide by. Through these ‘Gold Standards’ we additionally intend to preemptively address any security concerns relating to the implementation of computers in prisoners’ cells.

 

Gold Standards

  • Logging, Monitoring and Storage of each user’s session.
  • Print Accounts ensure all printed material is monitored and linkable to a specific individual.
  • Restricted Memory/Storage Devices guarantee that prisoners may only view material on staff approved devices. Prisoners are unable to upload material or view content that has not been approved.
  • Email Restrictions mean prisoners may only email approved correspondents. Additionally, all email passes through a security filtration system monitored by staff. (Refer to section 4.2)
  • Website Restrictions allow prisoners access to approved sites only.
  • Enforced Curfews determine when computers automatically shut down.
  • Regular Hardware Checks by prison staff ensure no tampering has occurred.

 

For more details regarding the Gold Standards, please refer to Appendix 1 “Establishing Security Standards for Computers in Cells”.

 

5.2 Cost

While the cost of providing a computer for each cell may seem prohibitive, the reality that this that this program would run a minimal short-term loss and quickly move into a position to actually save money for the Department of Corrective Services and the taxpayer (as will be discussed in 6.5 – Benefits of Cost and Morality for the state). As has been mentioned in 4.1 – Supply, numerous companies have already registered an interest in supplying free, used computers for such a program. Furthermore, in facilities such as the Nowra Prison in NSW, there is already wiring set up for the provision of computers for each prisoner – all that is required is the political will to take action.

 

5.3 Image Problems

The decision to provide computers to each prisoner is of course to one that must be justified to the public, and there may be a sense that this program makes life “too easy” for prisoners who are supposed to be serving time for a crime. However, this is by no means true, as the purpose of this model is not to undermine the system of crime and punishment, but rather to rehabilitate offenders and prevent a cycle of transgressions and break the ‘revolving door’ pattern. This is a program that in the long term will make our streets safer by encouraging prisoners to undertake suitable education and employment rather than re-offending. Furthermore, any government brave enough to implement this scheme would bring its practices in line with the UN Special Rapporteur’s Report on Education in Detention, and be able to claim the moral and humanitarian high ground that is inevitably appealing to voters and tax payers – particularly when it is not coupled with a significant financial burden.

In conclusion, concerns with image, cost and security must certainly be addressed before the implementation of a scheme in which a computer is placed in every prison cell, but we are now in a position to not only solve any such problems, but also actively turn them into reasons why such a model is viable.

 

6 BENEFITS

The provision of individual computers for prisoners has numerous benefits. The immediate outcome, of course, is that personal computers can be used to minimise confrontation and disruption within the prison system. Furthermore, by granting prisoners access to legal resources this scheme can reduce bureaucratic clutter and promote a greater understanding by prisoners of how the law operates – providing a deterrent for future criminal activity. Meanwhile, in the long term this model also acts to lower recidivism. Boosting levels of prisoner education improves prisoner rehabilitation: a process which is not only beneficial for the prisoners, but also for the Department of Corrective Services which will have a smaller population of prisoners who re-offend to cater for.

 

6.1 Prison Control

Personal computers offer significant opportunities for prisoners – even if this is only to reduce boredom.[18] As a result, the presence of a computer provides a major behavioural incentive for prisoners to behave and not abuse this privilege. The computer provides ease of access for communication with family as well as other simple distractions and prisoners will want to maintain this and so are less likely to risk their removal through inappropriate actions. All of this means that prison management will have another tool with which to control the prison population and maintain order.

 

6.2 Legal Resources

Computers provide prisoners with access to legal resources to assist with their cases. For instance, prisoners are able to read and respond to briefs, and access transcripts and legal Acts which are available on CD-ROMs. Computers also provide access to online legal resources, such as those provided by the Australasian Legal Information Institution (Austlii). This information will assist prisoners in accessing evidentiary and other materials relied upon by the police in court cases without difficulty.

 

6.3       Recidivism and Computer Literacy

The first opportunity that personal computers offer for prisoners is the chance to improve computer literacy. Computer literacy is an increasingly vital requirement for everyday life; it significantly affects education, vocational training and career prospects.[19] Very few jobs do not involve consistent interaction with a computer. By denying these skills, DCS is relegating ex-inmates to manual labour and similar arduous occupations. Furthermore, many female prisoners find aptitude with computers give them a great advantage when they returned home, allowing them to help their children with technical problems.[20]

 

6.4 Recidivism and Social Connection

One of the keys to successfully rehabilitating prisoners into society is providing a set of relationships for them to fall back on in the outside world. Access to regular email with family through this scheme allows for the prisoners to maintain these connections and retain a sense of self-worth that will encourage them to improve their situation through study (also facilitated by the computers)! Furthermore, as beneficial as such a relationship is to the prisoner, it also allows for peace of mind for the families of those imprisoned. Indeed, by being able to communicate with that father, mother, brother or aunt, family members will themselves be less likely to offend due to a reduction in feelings of isolation.

 

6.5 Recidivism and Education

The most important aspect of this scheme is that it encourages prisoner education. Computers, to a far greater extent than any previously available resource, allow prisoners to successfully move towards a TAFE or university qualification, and do so in a far more user-friendly method than any prison library or occasional prison educational course.

Why is education particularly important for prisoners though? It is important because there is a clear correlation between one’s level of education and the probability of committing a crime. In the 2002 decision of Middleton v Commissioner of Corrective Services of New South Wales, Justice Dowd discussed the role of education in rehabilitation and stated that "it is hard to imagine a better rehabilitation tool than the gaining of tertiary qualifications of a sophisticated nature".[21] Similarly, Findlay argues that “prisoner education is recognised as one of the few correctional initiatives which seem to correlate with improved recidivism prospects”.[22] Indeed, education is the key factor in finding employment once prisoners are released and the Minister for Justice pointed out in 2004 that “employment is of essential assistance to inmates avoiding the perils of recidivism once back in the community”.[23] The UN Human Rights Council also lends its support to prisoner education with Munoz asserting that ‘learning in prison through educational programs is generally considered a tool of change, its value judged by its impact on recidivism, reintegration, and more specifically, employment outcomes upon release’.[24] These statements by field leaders demonstrate just why a computer-based education program in prisons could be so effective.

Furthermore, these expert assessments are supported by quantitative evidence detailing the benefits of prison education. A QLD study showed that 32% of prisoners who did not complete a VET course returned to custody within 2 years while only 23% of those that did complete a VET course returned to custody.[25] Moreover, a recent study by the US Department of Education revealed that prisoners who undertook secondary or tertiary level study while in prison are less likely to return to prison within the first three years of release.[26] In 1991, Clark investigated the success of prisoners enrolled in twenty-one prison college level education programs. This study found that inmates who earned a diploma returned to prison custody at a significantly lower rate (26.4%) than those who did not earn a degree (44.6%).[27]  Another study conducted by Batiuk found that while the overall recidivism rate in Ohio was 40%, the recidivism rate for prisoners enrolled in the college program was 18%.[28] In addition, Ohio statistics show that inmates graduating from the college program were 72% less likely to re-offend than those who undertook no study. Similarly, Canadian statistics demonstrate how prisoners who completed at least two college courses have 50% lower recidivism rates.[29] There is therefore persuasive evidence in Australia as well as abroad that education greatly reduces recidivism and the model proposed by Justice Action is one which takes note of this evidence to provide a workable solution that encourages prisoners to attain higher levels of education through computers and thus become less likely to re-offend.

 

6.6 Benefits of Cost and Morality for the State

Currently, each prisoner in the state of NSW costs the government $210 a day and this figure is mirrored throughout the developed nations.[30] As such, any measure that reduces recidivism, and thus the prison population, is one that requires support. This model, as demonstrated through the correlation between education and rehabilitation and employment is one such measure and carries with it the additional benefit of creating a larger pool of skilled and educated workers who can themselves only provide further stimulus to the economy as tax payers rather than as subsidised prisoners.

Furthermore, as has been previously mentioned (see 5.3 – Image Problems), this scheme also provides its implementing state with the image benefits that come with being seen as humanitarian reformers. Providing each prisoner with a computer not only meets human rights aims with regards communication and education, but in general provides government with the positive image of being progressive and active on social issues, while also working to maintain the security of its citizens and the economic well-being of its jurisdiction. It should also be noted that in July 2012, the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) unanimously passed a resolution that confirmed internet freedom as a human right.[31] The European Commission has also recently expressed similar sentiments.

 

7 CONCLUSION

Prison sentences do not only serve to punish and deter – they are also effective means of rehabilitation. In formulating an effective rehabilitation programme, Justice Action believes that governments should treat education as a top priority and provide individual computers for an effective educational program.  This will not only reduce recidivism but also enhance the reintegration of prisoners back into society by giving them greater job prospects as well as the incentive to become productive parts of society. Such programs have already been widely documented as having a successful impact, and now is the time to implement an effective information technology system incorporating computers in each cell!

 

8 REFERENCES

ABC Radio National, ‘The Alexander Maconochie Centre: Australia's first human rights prison’, Life Matters, 23 June 2010 <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2010/06/lms_20100623_0919.mp3>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Adult Education and Vocational Training Institute (AEVTI), Corrective Services NSW, <http://www.correctiveservices.nsw.gov.au/offender-management/offender-services-and-programs/adult-education>; at 7 February 7, 2011.

 

Alexander Maconochie Centre (2010) A.C.T. Department of Justice and Community Safety <http://www.justice.act.gov.au/page/view/358>; at 7 February 2011.

 

AFP, The Australian, ‘UN Human Rights Council backs internet freedom as a right’ (6 July 2012) http://www.theaustralian.com.au/australian-it/un-human-rights-council-backs-internet-freedom-as-a-right/story-e6frgakx-1226418509346 at 13 August 2012

 

Community Justice Coalition, ‘NSW State Election: 26 March 2011, Prison System: Questionnaire and submission’ (Press Release, 2007).

Cox, R., & Carlin, A. (1999). A review in to the delivery of vocational education and training in Queensland corrections in 1998. Brisbane: Corrections Queensland.

 

Cyber Prison PC: Secure Server & Desktop Solution, Cyber Prison PC <http://www.prisonpc.com/>; at 7 February 2011.

 

D. D. Clark, Analysis of Return Rates of Inmate College Program Participants (1991).

 

Employment, Education and Training References Committee, Senate, Report of the inquiry into education and training in correctional facilities (1996).

 

Erwin James, Prisoners should join the PC brigade (2007) guardian.co.uk, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/sep/17/prisons>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Erwin James, What are prisons in Norway really like (2008) The Guardian <http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2008/nov/14/norway-prison-erwin-james>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Findlay, M., “Prisons as progressive punishment? The State of Corrective Services,” in The State of the States (2004).

 

Golding, N. (2002). Prisoner perceptions: learning experiences in correctional centre literacy programs. Australian Vocational Education Review, 9(1), 38-48.

 

Gwendolyn Cuizon, Benefits of Inmate Education Program (2009).

Hoen, V. (2005). Art on the inside. <http://www.pesireland.org/pdfs/Hoen.pdf>; at 23 August 2009.

 

Justice Action, ‘CARE: Computers Assisting Reform and Education,’ 1 July 1999.

 

Lithgow Correctional Centre Prisoner Computer Access (2005) Parliament of New South Wales <http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LC20050323053>; at 7 February 2011.

 

M. Batiuk, ‘The State of Post secondary Correctional Education In Ohio’ (1997) 48(2) Journal of Correctional Education), 70-72.

 

MacKenzie, D. L. (2006). What Works in Corrections. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

 

MC Media & Associations Pty Ltd. (2006). Evaluation of the Offender Education and Training in Adult Community Education (ACE) Initiative. Melbourne: Corrections Victoria.

 

Munoz, United Nations: Promotion of Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development (2009) Human Rights Council, Eleventh Session, Agenda Item 3, 4.

 

NSW Department of Corrective Services, Operations Procedures Manual (2009) NSW Council for Civil Liberties <http://www.nswccl.org.au/issues/prisoners/ops.php>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Personal Computers in Prison (2010) Victoria Department of Justice <http://www.justice.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/DOJ+Internet/Home/Prisons/Prisoners/Property/JUSTICE+-+Personal+Computers+in+Prison>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Pippa Norris, Digital divide? : civic engagement, information poverty, and the Internet worldwide (2001).

 

Sendt, R, J, Prisoner Rehabilitation: Department of Corrective Services (2006) Auditor General NSW <http://www.audit.nsw.gov.au/publications/reports/performance/2006/prisoner/prisoner_rehabilitation.pdf>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Secure Internet Access, Cyber PrisonPC <http://www.prisonpc.com/internet_features.html>; at 7 February 2011.

Stephen Duguid, et.al. ‘Using Recidivism to Evaluate Effectiveness in Prison Education Programs’ (1996) 47(2) Journal of Correctional Education, 74-85.

 

Schuller, T., Preston, J., Hammond, C., Brassett-Grundy, A. & Bynner, J. (2004). The Benefits of Learning: The impact of education on health, family life and social capital. London: RoutedgeFalmer.

 

Stephen Duguid, et. al. ‘Using Recidivism to Evaluate Effectiveness in Prison Education Programs’ (1996) 47(2) Journal of Correctional Education, 74-85.

 

Susan Dawe, Vocational education and training for adult prisoners and offenders in Australia: Research readings (2007).

 

System Security, Cyber PrisonPC <http://www.prisonpc.com/security.html>; at 7 February 2011.

 

Tasman Bedford, Rhyl Dearden and Marilyn Dorman, Offender rehabilitation and information literacy: A case for providing appropriate prisoner access to contemporary ICT (2005) Australasian Corrections Education Association Inc. <http://www.acea.org.au/Content/2005%20papers/Paper%20Bedford%20et%20al.pdf>; at 7 February, 2011.

 

Torre, M. E., & Fine, M. (2005). Bar None: Extending Affirmative Action to Higher Education in Prison. Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), 569-594.

 

William Lee Adams, Norway builds the world’s most humane prison (2010) Time Magazine <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1986002,00.html> at 7 February 2011.

 

9      CASES

Middleton v Commissioner of Corrective Services of N.S.W. & Anor [2004] NSWSC 136.

 

10    APPENDIX

Appendix 1

Establishing Security Standards for Computers in Cells


INTRODUCTION

It is essential that some formal principles about computer access for people in detention are immediately established, as this is basic to any serious attempt to nationally implement a computers in cells (CIC) program. The aim is to fully defend the CIC system against any abuses that could place the community, prisons or prison staff at risk. The security standards should become the base upon which other jurisdictions can securely form their computer systems.

It is proposed that these standards be universally accepted and adjusted as necessary as the agreed ‘gold standard’ of good prison management for computer access.

Through these security standards we intend to preemptively address any security concerns relating to the implementation of computers in prisoners’ cells.

The computers in cells system should be simple and safe, but also involve prisoners themselves in taking a measure of individual responsibility, just as everyone does within the general community. It is essential that authorities recognise the principle of individual responsibility as opposed to collective responsibility, and ensure that only those inmates who abuse the system should be punished. In the event that abuses of the computers in cells system does occur, transgressors must be dealt with individually.

Any new proposal within the prison system is a disturbance of the status quo. There will be a high level of emotional response from administrators and staff who are accustomed to operating in a tightly controlled and restricted environment and always resent any benefits to prisoners. Those who have little knowledge of IT and low education levels will be suspicious and distrustful of the computers in cells system. As a consequence, some administrators and staff have in the past deliberately sabotaged new systems, therefore it is necessary that we provide stated standards by which it can be judged to ensure that computers in cells are protected.

Obviously there will be different areas of risk concerned with stand-alone systems and those with internet access, all of which need to and will be addressed by the current supplier of prisoner computer services.


RISKS

In relation to instances of abuse of the system, there are specific areas of concern to be addressed in order to maintain the integrity of the system. Those concerns include:

  • Escape
  • Crime including sex offences
  • Contacting victims
  • Access to pornography

 

CASE HISTORIES OF BREACHES

(‘Clearing House’ – Opportunity to lodge experiences)

There have been examples of past cases whereby security breaches have occurred, however the current technology can address all of these issues.

Case History 1

In this instance it was reported that child pornography had been smuggled into Ararat prison, Victoria (Australia) through USB storage devices and memory cards.

http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/victoria/evil-killer-robert-arthur-selby-lower-running-jail-sex-ring/story-e6frf7kx-1225966143895

Case History 2

In another situation at the Alexander Maconochie Centre, Australian Capital Territory (Australia) a prisoner used internet access to send a garbled message via email to The Canberra Times.

http://www.canberratimes.com.au/news/local/news/general/jail-gets-tough-on-inmates-internet-access/1753016.aspx?storypage=1

Case History 3

At Barwon prison, Victoria (Australia) an inmate was found with a disc containing dozens of offensive pornographic images.

http://www.heraldsun.com.au/news/victoria/killers-porn-stash/story-e6frf7kx-1225949091210

Case History 4

Thirty Facebook pages across the United Kingdom were taken down after it was discovered that prisoners were using their profiles to taunt their victims.

http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2010/feb/11/facebook-prisoners-taunts-jack-straw


SOLUTIONS TO SECURITY BREACHES

Logging and Monitoring

Extensive logging of user sessions is recorded in the computer supplier’s server system logs for custodial staff to audit later if required. Custodial staff can remotely monitor or control prisoner desktops, for remote support or for clandestine monitoring.

Print Accounting and Identification

All printing is logged with the computer suppliers system so that the associated costs can be charged to the prisoners. All documents are marked with clear identification of the prisoner who printed them.


Enforced Curfew

The computer supplier ensures desktop computers can be automatically shutdown at a nominated 'lights-out' time. Prisoners are unable to use the computers until the curfew is automatically lifted.


Unauthorised Memory Devices

Technologies such as high density USB storage devices, DVDs and 3G modems have been known to be smuggled into or out of prisons as a means of communication or for access to non-approved media. To address this, the computer supplier has explicitly disabled the use of any modem or USB storage device and has blocked access to optical media containing video or data content unless it has been analysed and approved by staff. Any attempt to access unapproved media will alert custodial staff.

Access to DVD or CD media may also be restricted to specific users or desktops. Although prisoners may try to smuggle such devices in and out the facility, they will not be able to access the content or upload content to the device.

Unauthorised Email Messages

Through the computer supplier’s system, prisoners are provided with access to a secure email so that they can contact a restricted and monitored amount of people (such as their solicitor and family members). Emails are filtered through a security system in order to monitor inappropriate information.

 

Unauthorised Website Access

The computer supplier blocks all access to any unapproved websites, of course including Facebook, Twitter, Gmail, and any other social networking sites that could give prisoners access to victims.

 

CONCLUSION

Current technology and security measures allow for the safe use of computers by prisoners. With recidivism rates over 40% it is important to implement CIC programs within Australian prisons. See the ‘Computers in Cells Proposal’ for in-depth analysis about how CIC will reduce recidivism creating a safer community.

 

 



[1] Cyber PrisonPC <http://www.prisonpc.com/>;

[2] NSW Department of Corrective Services, Operations Procedures Manual (2009) NSW Council for Civil Liberties <http://www.nswccl.org.au/issues/prisoners/ops.php>; at 7 February 2011.

[3] Ibid.

[4] See 2.1.1 – Mark Middleton

[5] Employment, Education and Training References Committee, Senate, Report of the inquiry into education and training in correctional facilities (1996).

[6]  Ibid.

[7] Community Justice Coalition, ‘NSW State Election: 26 March 2011, Prison System:   Questionnaire and submission’ (Press Release, 2007).

[8]  Employment, Education and Training References Committee, above n 4.

[9] Personal Computers in Prison (2010) Victoria Department of Justice <http://www.justice.vic.gov.au/wps/wcm/connect/DOJ+Internet/Home/Prisons/Prisoners/Property/JUSTICE+-+Personal+Computers+in+Prison>; at 7 February 2011.

[10] Alexander Maconochie Centre (2010) A.C.T. Department of Justice and Community Safety <http://www.justice.act.gov.au/page/view/358>; at 7 February 2011.

[11] ABC Radio National, ‘The Alexander Maconochie Centre: Australia's first human rights prison’, Life Matters, 23 June 2010  <http://mpegmedia.abc.net.au/rn/podcast/2010/06/lms_20100623_0919.mp3>; at 7 February 2011.

[12] Erwin James, Prisoners should join the PC brigade (2007) guardian.co.uk, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/sep/17/prisons>; at 7 February 2011.

[13] Ibid.

[14] William Lee Adams, Norway builds the world’s most humane prison (2010) Time Magazine <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1986002,00.html> at 7 February 2011.

[15] Cyber Prison PC: Secure Server & Desktop Solution, Cyber Prison PC <http://www.prisonpc.com/>; at 7 February 2011.

[16] Secure Internet Access, Cyber PrisonPC <http://www.prisonpc.com/internet_features.html>; at 7 February 2011; Stephen Duguid, et.al. ‘Using Recidivism to Evaluate Effectiveness in Prison Education Programs’ (1996) 47(2) Journal of Correctional Education, 74-85.

[17] System Security, Cyber PrisonPC <http://www.prisonpc.com/security.html>; at 7 February 2011.

[18] Justice Action, ‘CARE: Computers Assisting Reform and Education,’ 1 July 1999.

[19] Erwin James, Prisoners should join the PC brigade (2007) guardian.co.uk, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2007/sep/17/prisons>; at 7 February 2011.

[20] Susan Dawe, Vocational education and training for adult prisoners and offenders in Australia: Research readings (2007).

[21] Middleton v Commissioner of Corrective Services of N.S.W. & Anor [2004] NSWSC 136.

[22] Findlay, M., “Prisons as progressive punishment? The State of Corrective Services,” in The State of the States (2004).

[23] Lithgow Correctional Centre Prisoner Computer Access (2005) Parliament of New South Wales <http://www.parliament.nsw.gov.au/prod/parlment/hansart.nsf/V3Key/LC20050323053>; at 7 February 2011.

[24] Munoz, United Nations: Promotion of Human Rights, Civil, Political, Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Including the Right to Development (2009) Human Rights Council, Eleventh Session, Agenda Item 3, 4.

[25] Adult Education and Vocational Training Institute (AEVTI), Corrective Services NSW, <http://www.correctiveservices.nsw.gov.au/offender-management/offender-services-and-programs/adult-education>; at 7 February 7, 2011.

[26] Gwendolyn Cuizon, Benefits of Inmate Education Program (2009).

[27] D. D. Clark, Analysis of Return Rates of Inmate College Program Participants (1991).

[28] M. Batiuk, ‘The State of Post secondary Correctional Education In Ohio’ (1997) 48(2) Journal of Correctional Education), 70-72.

[29] Stephen Duguid, et. al. ‘Using Recidivism to Evaluate Effectiveness in Prison Education Programs’ (1996) 47(2) Journal of Correctional Education, 74-85.

[30] Sendt, R, J, Prisoner Rehabilitation: Department of Corrective Services (2006) Auditor General NSW <http://www.audit.nsw.gov.au/publications/reports/performance/2006/prisoner/prisoner_rehabilitation.pdf>; at 7 February 2011.

[31] AFP, The Australian, ‘UN Human Rights Council backs internet freedom as a right’ (6 July 2012) http://www.theaustralian.com.au/australian-it/un-human-rights-council-backs-internet-freedom-as-a-right/story-e6frgakx-1226418509346 at 13 August 2012

Read 126409 times

1626 comments

  • Comment Link sbusheht Wednesday, 25 June 2014 21:32 posted by sbusheht

    One other thing to remember is if the phone store proposes to shower the swimsuit watch them. Dainty plus size bodystocking plus size corset plus size babydoll lingerei may much throughout their wrap when compared situation you wrap the following in the a piece of essay left out of the cousin's birthday. Event is the main packaging featuring bustiers.


    This is a real item of approach art the actual book light beer region 9, What one lets out that the individuals who devised can be experienced a whole time that the prawns(In actual fact intended as puppets associated with computer) Experienced presuggested to represent intergalactic hobos. The objective could be that the prawns employed in truth tender tissue as well eyeballs given blanket their own anything at all they begin to offered. Regarding credit cards personal belongings which will help prevent warning signs or symptoms make accustomed as a terrific way to,


    cheap oakley sunglasses

    Buy items upon an SPF regarding 15 or maybe more. Too attempt to find tools as their labeled promises: General assortment(Meanings they can force away at home. of bad light(Ultraviolet) But water-resistant(Interpreted as the person stay onto the skin a lot more time, You will still get whet or to perspiration whole). You should re-apply typically all these product when needed,


    Thanks a ton, Gar. Useful day many people. The right way to a couple of years contemplating I've carried this out and I understandthat the launch honestly has got some additional time, But it is great to exist and that i savor having the opportunity to speak with you all. The foregoing results straight into had been second postulate. Gadgets examined via a telescope by no means mimic the unobstructed, Ideal, Serious avatars you see much. The eye struggles to see colour that bought by way of model of electronic webcam.


    [url=http://www.procopio.com/test1.cfm]discount oakley sunglasses[/url]

    The second which include your opportunity always upload a hold selling or even perhaps a 'buy it now' work for you inthat would verify you might be make financial gain, nor throw money away, Simultaneously in addition to it will take up to 10 days to be able to delivery. Once you have 10 databases out, Guarantee the only monthly payments investment may as a result of Paypal, Buy most deals of the product or service after Beltal and DH entrance, Right after that bring one services or products go freighted around the folks answer, This particular an individual touch whatever thing. Of which nothing but repeat using this method but off in the funds,


    In my carefully place is to find who want to try to lose five unwanted fat here about June. Most certainly personal aim to get rid of five pounds, Yet if we put on we will repeat the process the following month and we will deliver every most excellent. Some can be sluggish nonwinners and others lose on the inside jolts. Many your negative opinions, Ones agony and furthermore going through proceeds from prefer, Using wishing for. When you wish something you phrase you minimal the one solution or alternatively personal. Have implies do not have.

  • Comment Link MBT 通販 Wednesday, 25 June 2014 21:28 posted by MBT 通販

    O脚やがに股歩きの方にも多いタコ。ここにタコがある場合も、しっかりと歩きぐせを治していく必要があります:おもに、足のつま先の形を無視した、細い靴、窮屈な靴によって、小指の外側にできたタコ。と同じように、内反小趾や、小指側にずれた歩きぐせがある場合もできる場所。薪釜で茹で揚げる麺が人気の『めん処角千 にしむら』麺から自家製のものを使用している安全・安心の食事が楽しめる麺処です。人気メニューは合盛り♪うどんと細麺の中華麺が一緒に楽しめるにしむらの人気メニューです♪ 創業以来注ぎ足している人気のおでんは年中楽しめます♪また、ビールやお酒もございますのでちょっと一杯にもご利用いただけます。皆様のご来店を心よりお待ちしております!。
    MBT 通販 http://www.henghui-co.com

  • Comment Link dafa888 Wednesday, 25 June 2014 21:07 posted by dafa888

    hello there and thank you for your information – I've certainly picked up anything
    new from right here. I did however expertise several tdchnical points using thios site, as I experienced
    to reload thee weeb site a lot off times previous to I could get it to load correctly.
    I had been wondering if your web host is OK?
    Noot that I'm complaining, but sluggish loading instances times
    will sometimes affect your placement in google and could damage
    your quality score if advertising and marketinbg with Adwords.

    Well I'm adding this RSS to my e-mail annd could look
    out for much more of your respective interesting content.
    Ensure that youu update this again very soon.

  • Comment Link レイバン サングラス 偏光 Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:53 posted by レイバン サングラス 偏光

    の海棠(かいどう)には、ただ愛らしい気持ちがする。椿の沈んでいるのは全く違う。黒ずんだ、毒気のある、恐ろし味(み)を帯びた調子である。この調子を底に持って、上部(うわべ)はどこまでも派出に装(よそお)っている。しかも人に

  • Comment Link veroniquedolcini Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:44 posted by veroniquedolcini

    ゴールデンウイーク直前にネットで靴を購入しました。アウトレット品になっており、プリントのかすれや汚れがあることでの返品は不可になっており了解済みです私の靴のサイズは、24.5cmでパンプスなどはLまたはLLサイズですが今回はフラットシューズのような靴です。通販サイトには24.5はW9になっていたため、そのままの自分のサイズを購入しましたしかし、2日に商品が到着したもののサイズが大き過ぎます。このホテルはニューヨークのマンハッタン地区にあり、フラットアイアン・ビル とエンパイアー・ステート・ビル から徒歩約10分の場所に位置しています。 客室にはエアコン設備が完備されていて、プラズマTVや無料のWiFi接続などもあります。このホテルにはコンシェルジュ、 ビジネスセンターと24時間対応レセプションなどの施設や設備も備わっています。
    veroniquedolcini http://www.veroniquedolcini.com

  • Comment Link MIUMIU 通販 Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:38 posted by MIUMIU 通販

    ソニースタイルのスタメンプログラムで8月からスタートした「企画会議」。いきなり最初から盛り上がっているようですが、私もどうしても欲しいモノがあるので、トラックバックで企画応募です私が是非、開発を進めてもらいたいのは、こちらの製品です。詳しくはこちらにルールが掲載されているんですが、はい、私もどうしても欲しいモノができてしまいましたそれがカメラバッグなんですが、普通のカメラバッグではなくてウエストポーチ風のカメラバッグ。
    MIUMIU 通販 http://www.torikai-akane.com

  • Comment Link hermes foulards Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:34 posted by hermes foulards

    chilliwack nyc canada goose alberta vest clearance the north face jackets canada goose norway jacket air max vert michael kors homes for sale in westfield ma air max us moncler 2014 air max ltd ii michael kors sale niagara falls outlet canada hermes bijoux argent sac ordinateur longchamp air max 2003 original ray ban wayfarer the north face primero 70 sale football soccer shirt michael kors land for sale kentucky river brazil football shirts canada goose factory outlet montreal Canada Goose Chilliwack Men

  • Comment Link MBT 新作 2014 Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:32 posted by MBT 新作 2014

    大人からバレエを始める人がなりやすい故障で、最も多いのが、ハムストリングスやその周辺の故障。ハムストリングスというのは太ももの裏の筋のこと。他に前面の筋を痛める人も多いようです原因 : ここを痛める原因の多くは、過剰なストレッチ、体が温まっていないうちの無理なストレッチです。そしてもう一つ、ワンポイントアドバイスが。どうやら、痩せるには「強度の弱い運動」が最適なようです。……その「強い」「弱い」がわからない。
    MBT 新作 2014 http://www.dairyvendor.com

  • Comment Link www.manukconsultin.com Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:32 posted by www.manukconsultin.com

    当選者の方へのみ、こちらからご連絡させていただきます。ご応募の期間は、2013年7月23日(火)8月31日(土)着までご応募は締め切らせていただきました。たくさんのご応募、ありがとうございました!。
    http://www.manukconsultin.com http://www.manukconsultin.com

  • Comment Link air max pas cher Wednesday, 25 June 2014 20:24 posted by air max pas cher

    Many thanks Donnie! My spouse and i certainly concur with the particular meta files. Well-formed key terms and also information really should be an element of virtually any website for your factors you actually notice, however with luck , people find out not necessarily fixate to them to the bar regarding other SEARCH ENGINE MARKETING enhancements.

<< Start < Prev 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Next > End >>

Leave a comment

Make sure you enter the (*) required information where indicated.
Basic HTML code is allowed.

JA Mentoring

JA Mentoring

The JA Mentoring Project For some years now Justice Action has been exploring the idea of a 'mentoring project'. The…

More...
Frontpage Slideshow | Copyright © 2006-2011 JoomlaWorks Ltd.
Get Involve
Donate
Give us work